Position: Professor, Head of Division of Combustion Engines
Phone: +46 46 222 85 23
Fax: +46 46 222 47 17
Internal mail: Hs 9
PO Box 118,
SE-221 00 Lund
Ole Römers väg 1, M-huset
The Ph.D. 1995 on “On Cycle to Cycle Variations in Spark Ignition Engines – The Effects of Fluid Flow and Gas Composition in the Vicinity of the Spark Plug on Early Combustion”. Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering Lund Institute of Technology under supervision of Prof. Gunnar Lundholm
Docent: Docent 1998
Head of Division of Combustion Engines at Lund University since 2004-01-24.
Vice-Head of Department (stf. Prefekt) since the same date.
Head of the STEM Competence Centre Combustion Processes since 2003-07-01.
Some 10% of the time is spent on education 40% on administration and the rest on research/supervision.
1988: Litterature study of design methods for exhaust manifolds conducted for Torsmaskiner in Torsås at the Department of Heat and Power Engineering, LTH.
1988-1989: Trainee at Saab-Scania Södertälje with focus on combustion engine design and manufacturing.
1989-1993: Ph.D. student at the Division of Combustion Engines, Department of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund Institute of Technology at Lund University
1993-1996: Research Engineer at the Division of Combustion Engines, Department of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund Institute of Technology at Lund University
1996-2001 Assistant Professor (Lektor) at the Division of Combustion Engines, Department of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund Institute of Technology at Lund University
2001- Professor at the Division of Combustion Engines, Department of Heat and Power Engineering, , Lund Institute of Technology at Lund University
1998 Award from “Sydkraft forskningsstiftelse” with SEK 30000
1999 “Energistipendium from Gunnar Engströms ABB-Stiftelse” with SEK 50000
2000 SAE Horning Memorial Award (Best SAE paper 1999 in the field of fuels and lubricants) for SAE paper 1999-01-3681
2000 SAE Arch T. Colwell Merit Award for one of top 16 papers 1999.
2002 The annual scholarship given by the Swedish Gas Association SEK 10000
2005 SAE FELLOW (top 300 members out of 90.000)
2005 SAE Forest R. McFarland Award for organizer 2004
2006 Springer guest professor at UC Berkeley, CA, US
Invited lectures 2003-2007
MIT annual project report meeting at Ford US, Detroit, US,February 28
CHAPNET, Gas engine workshop, Brussels, April 15
Autoignition, I.Mech.E. meeting, Oxford, UK, April 16
SAE diesel emission aftertreatment TOPTEC, September 24
SAE panel discussion on HCCI, Pittsburgh, US, October 2003
Imperial College Invited lectures series, London, February 25
International Workshop for Environmentally Friendly Vehicles, Tokyo, Japan, March 3
Nätverket, Partiklar från vägtrafik och förbr. av biobränsle, Lund, April 15
International conference on Automotive technology, ICAT, Istanbul, Nov 26.
Biannual meeting of European Section of Combustion Institute, Lovain, Belgium, April 7
SAE diesel emission aftertreatment TOPTEC, September 22
Semcon Combustion engine seminar, Göteborg September 29
“HCCI”, Klippans fordonsgymnasie, Ljungbyhed November 1
Summary of 10 years with competence centre, Vinnova, Stockholm Nov. 2
“HCCI” at ARAI, Pune India April 21
“HCCI” at B&W, Copenhagen Denmark May 10
“HCCI engine size”, Int. conf. on combustion engines, Tianjin China July 18
“HCCI fuels”, IEA task leaders meeting, Heidelberg, Germany August 13
“HCCI”, Berkeley US, October 13
“HCCI”, SAE Powertrain and fluid systems meeting Toronto Canada, Oct. 17
“HCCI” Spring professor lecture at Berkeley Feb 2007
”Combustion in future engines”, IVA Syd, Lund March 2007
”HCCI” at 10th International Conference on Present and Future Engines for Automobiles, Rhodes Island, Greece, May 27-31, 2007
”HCCI” Keynote speech at Japan Society of Automotive Engineers, Kyoto, Japan, July 2007
“HCCI” Annual CIMAC meeting in Lund November 2007
“Cleantec in automotive sector: HCCI”, Cleantec conference, Copenhagen Nov. 2007
Member of the advanced powerplant committee at Society of Automotive Engineers, 2002-
Co-chairman of the advanced powerplant committee at Society of Automotive Engineers 2004-2006.
Main organizer for the HCCI sessions at the following meetings
- SAE fall fuels and lubricants meeting, San Antonio, September 2001
- SAE2002, Detroit, February 2002
- SAE Powertrain and fluid systems, SanDiego, October 2002
- SAE2003, Detroit, March 2003
- SAE spring fuels and lubricants meeting, Yokohama, Japan, June 2003
- SAE Powertrain and fluid systems, Pittsburgh, October 2003
- SAE2004, Detroit, March 2004
- SAE spring fuels and lubricants meeting, Toulouse, France, June 2004
- SAE Powertrain and fluid systems, Tampa, October 2004
- SAE2005, Detroit April 2005
- SAE spring Fuel and Lubricants meeting, Rio, May 2005
- SAE Powertrain and fluid systems, San Antonio, October 2005
- SAE2006, Detroit April 2006
- SAE Powertrain and fluid systems, Toronto, October 2006
- SAE spring Fuel and Lubricants meeting, Cape Town, January 2007
- SAE2007, Detroit April 2007
- JSAE2007, Kyoto, July 2007
- SAE Powertrain and fluid systems, Chicago, October 2007
- SAE2008, Detroit, April 2008
- SAE Powertrain and fluid systems, Chicago, October 2008
Organizer for the SAE TOPTEC on HCCI at Berkeley, August 2004
Organizer for the SAE symposium on HCCI at Lund, September 2005
Organizer for the SAE symposium on HCCI at Lund, September 2007
Persons supervised to Ph.D.
Martin Ekenberg, 2002, Anders Hultqvist, 2002, Fredrik Söderberg, 2002, Magnus Christensen, 2002, Olof Erlandsson, 2002, Patrik Einewall, 2003, Jan-Ola Olsson, 2004, Ola Stenlåås, 2004, Henrik Nordgren (Lic. only) 2004, Göran Haraldsson, 2005, Jari Hyvönen 2005, Petter Strandh, 2006, Leif Hildingsson, 2006, Ryo Hasegawa (Lic. only) 2006, Magnus Andersson (Lic. only) 2006. Håkan Persson Lic. 2006, Andreas Vressner 2007
Postdocs in the research group
Per Tunestål, Ph.D.
Anders Hultqvist, Ph.D.
Rolf Egnell, Ph.D.
Magnus Påhlsson, Ph.D.
Leif Hildingsson, Ph.D.
Bengt Johansson, records of previous research achievements
The modern research activities in Lund for internal combustion engines started 1989 and Johansson was the first Ph.D. student at start. The first part of the 1990:s was used to build up the competence and develop new laser based diagnostic tools. A new optical engine test facility was built up from the ground and up. In this lab experiments on early flame development with advanced laser techniques resulted in a Ph.D. 1995. Already 1991 a collaboration were initiated with the div. of combustion physics under Prof. Marcus Aldén. This was the seed for the later Centre of Competence and CECOST within the fields of engines and laser diagnostics.
During mid 1990:s studies of fluid flow in the cylinder were used to understand and optimize SI engines with variable valve systems. The interaction of fluid flow and fuel spray in GDI engines was also studied. Combustion chambers for natural gas heavy duty engines were developed with the aid of similar fluid flow investigations. For diesel engines, studies of NOx and soot formation were done with the aid of advanced laser diagnostics. All of those studies were of internationally high level generating a number of papers and were received well by the funding engine industry.
A significant lift in terms of research attraction came in 1996 when the first HCCI studies were performed. At that time HCCI was not generally known or even considered as an alternative. With the first paper from Lund 1997 and perhaps even more with the information in the second from 1998 HCCI became a hot topic for all research organizations involved in engines. With the aid of the Competence Centre Combustion Processes formed in Lund the HCCI research could prosper with Johansson as project leader and contact to industry. In fact Lund is now dominating the scientific paper production in the field of HCCI and has an undisputed leading role. Johansson is since 2003 director of the centre of competence combustion processes. Contracts with all Swedish and international companies like Caterpillar, Cummins, Toyota and Nissan has resulted.
Bengt Johansson Publication list
A. Original Publications:
“Förbränningsmotorer”, Textbook in Swedish used in Combustion Engines Basic Course 3p and Advanced Course, 3p at Lund Institute of Technology.
“Nonlinear and Hybrid Systems in Automotive Control”, R. Johansson and A. Rantzer (Eds.), ISBN 1-85233-652-8, Springer Verlag 2002
B. + C. Refereed articles and conference papers:
- Håkan Persson, Johan Sjöholm, Elias Kristensson, Bengt Johansson, Mattias Richter,
Marcus Aldén: “Study of Fuel Stratification on Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) Combustion with Ethanol Using High Speed Fuel PLIF”, submitted to 2008 SAE International Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting
- Sasa Trajkovic, Per Tunestål and Bengt Johansson, “Investigation of Different Valve Geometries and Valve Timing Strategies and their Effect on Regenerative Efficiency for a Pneumatic Hybrid with Variable Valve Actuation”, SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-1715, Shanghai, China, 2008
- Maria Karlsson, Kent Ekholm, Petter Strandh, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson, “Closed-Loop Control of Combustion Phasing in an HCCI Engine Using VVA and Variable EGR, Fifth IFAC Symposion on Advances in Automotive Control, Monterey, USA, August 2007
- Kent Ekholm, Maria Karlsson, Per Tunestål, Rolf Johansson, Bengt Johansson, Petter Strandh, “Ethanol-Diesel Fumigation in a Multi-Cylinder Engine”, SAE World Congress, SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-0033, Detroit, MI, April 2008
- Carl Wilhelmsson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson. “An Ultra High Bandwidth Automotive Rapid Prototype System”. Presented at the Fifth IFAC Symposium on Advances in Automotive Control, Aptos, CA, USA, August 2007.
- Carl Wilhelmsson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson. “Operation strategy of a Dual Fuel HCCI Engine with VGT”. Japanese Society of Automotive Engineering (JSAE) Technical Paper 20077035, SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1855. Presented by at the JSAE/SAE International Fuels & Lubricants Meeting, Kyoto, Japan, July 2007.
- Vittorio Manente, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson.
”Influence of the compression ratio on the performance and emissions of a mini HCCI engine fuelled with DME”, SAE Technical Paper 07FFL-40
- H. Persson, B. Johansson, A. Remón,
“The Effect of Swirl on Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI)”
JSAE Technical paper, Issue 2007-7167, Kyoto July 2007
- Rixin Yu, Xue Song Bai, Andreas Vressner, Anders Hultqvist, Bengt Johansson, Hans Seyfried, Jimmy Olofsson, Johan Sjöholm, Mattias Richter and Marcus Aldén, “Effect of Turbulence on HCCI Combustion”, SAE 2007-01-0183, Detroit, USA, April 2007
- Hans Seyfried, Jimmy Olofsson, Johan Sjöholm, Mattias Richter, Marcus Aldén, Andreas Vressner, Anders Hultqvist and Bengt Johansson, “High-Speed PLIF Imaging for Investigation of Turbulence Effects on Heat Release Rates in HCCI Combustion”, SAE 2007-01-0213, Detroit, USA, April 2007
- Andreas Vressner, Anders Hultqvist and Bengt Johansson, “Study on Turbulence Effects in HCCI Combustion using High-Speed Cycle-Resolved Chemiluminescence Imaging,” SAE 2007-01-0217, Detroit, USA, April 2007
- H. Persson, A Hultqvist, B. Johansson, A. Remón
“Investigation of the Early Flame Development in Spark Assisted HCCI Combustion Using High Speed Chemiluminescence Imaging”
SAE Technical paper, Issue 2007-01-0212
- Vittorio Manente, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson.
”A Study of a Glow Plug Ignition Engine by Chemiluminescence Images”,
SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1884
- Vittorio Manente, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson.
Mini High Speed HCCI Engine Fueled with Ether: Load Range, Emission Characteristics and Optical Analysis
SAE Technical Paper 07APAC-124
- Uwe Horn, and Rolf Egnell, and Öivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson,
“Detailed Heat Release Analyses With Regard To Combustion of RME and Oxygenated Fuels in an HSDI Diesel Engine”,
CI Engine Performance for Use with Alternative Fuels, SAE technical paper Detroit 2007
- Inge Saanum, Marie Bysveen, Per Tunestål, and Bengt,Johansson,
“Lean burn versus stoichiometric operation with EGR and 3-way catalyst of an engine fueled with natural gas and hydrogen enriched natural gas”, SAE technical paper 2007,
- Sasa Trajkovic, Per Tunestål and Bengt Johansson:
“Introductory Study of Variable Valve Actuation for Pneumatic Hybridization” Published in: SAE Technical Papers , Issue: 2007-01-0288, Detroit 2007
- Per Amnéus, Martin Tunér, Fabian Mauss, Robert Collin, Jenny Nygren, Mattias Richter, Marcus Aldén, Markus Kraft, Amit Bhave, Leif Hildingsson, Bengt Johansson, “Formaldehyde and hydroxyl radicals in an HCCI engine – calculations and LIF-measurements”, SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0049
- Rixin Yu, Xue-Song Bai, Harry Lehtiniemi, S. S. Ahmed, Fabian Mauss, Mattias Richter, Marcus Aldén, Leif Hildingsson, Bengt Johansson, Anders Hultqvist
“Effect of Turbulence and Initial Temperature Inhomogeneity on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion”, SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3318
- Jari Hyvönen, Carl Wilhelmsson, Bengt Johansson,
“The Effect of Displacement on Air-Diluted Multi-Cylinder HCCI Engine Performance” Published in: SAE Technical Papers , Issue: 2006-01-0205, 2006,
- Sasa Trajkovic, Alexandar Milosavljevic, and Per Tunestål, and Bengt Johansson, “FPGA Controlled Pneumatic Variable Valve Actuation” Published in: SAE Special Publications , Volume: 2006 , Issue: SP-2007, 2006
- Andreas Vressner, Anders Hultqvist, Bengt Johansson, Martin Weinrotter, Ernst Wintner, Kurt Iskra and Theo Neger, “Visualization of Laser Assisted HCCI Combustion with Natural Gas as Fuel”, Published in: FISITA 2006 World Automotive Congress, Yokohama, 2006
- Carl Wilhelmsson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson, “FPGA Based Engine Feedback Control Algorithms” , Published in: FISITA 2006 World Automotive Congress, Yokohama, 2006
- Carl Wilhelmsson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson
“Model Based Engine Control Using ASICs: A Virtual Heat Release Sensor” Published in: Les Rencontres Scientifiques de l'IFP: "New Trends in Engine Control, Simulation and Modelling", Paris 2006
- Carl Wilhelmsson, Andreas Vressner, Per Tunestål and Bengt Johansson. “Combustion Chamber Wall Temperature Measurement and Modeling During Transient HCCI Operation”. Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) Technical Paper 2005-01-3731. San Antonio, TX, USA, October 2005.
- Gustaf Särner, Mattias Richter, Marcus Aldén, Leif Hildingsson, Anders Hultqvist, Bengt Johansson, “Simultaneous PLIF Measurements for Visualization of Formaldehyde- and Fuel- Distributions in a DI HCCI Engine”
SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-3869
- M. Lemel, A. Hultqvist, A. Vressner, H. Nordgren, H. Persson, B. Johansson
“Quantification of the Formaldehyde Emissions From Different Hcci Engines Running on a Range of Fuels”, SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-3724
- Håkan Persson, Leif Hildingsson, Anders Hultqvist, Bengt Johansson, Jochen Rübel
“Investigation of Boundary Layer Behaviour in HCCI Combustion using Chemiluminescence Imaging”, SAE Transactions Journal of Fuels and Lubricants 2005, SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-3729
- Leif Hildingsson, Anders Hultqvist, Bengt Johansson, Gustaf Särner, Mattias Richter, Marcus Aldén, “Simultaneous Formaldehyde and Fuel-Tracer LIF Imaging in a High-Speed Diesel Engine with Optically Accessible Realistic Combustion Chamber”
SAE Technical Paper 2005-24-008, SAE Naples Section, ICE2005, Capri, 2005
- Göran Haraldsson, Jari Hyvönen, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson, "Transient Control of a Multi Cylinder HCCI Engine During a Drive Cycle", SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0153, Detroit, USA, 2005
- Patrik Einewall, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson
"Lean Burn Natural Gas Operation vs. Stoichiometric Operation with EGR and a Three Way Catalyst", SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0250, Detroit, USA, 2005
- Jari Hyvönen, Göran Haraldsson, Bengt Johansson, "Operating Conditions Using Spark Assisted HCCI Combustion During Combustion Mode Transfer to SI in a Multi-Cylinder VCR-HCCI Engine", SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0109, Detroit, USA, 2005
- Petter Strandh, Johan Bengtsson, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson
"Variable Valve Actuation for Timing Control of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine", SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0147, Detroit, USA, 2005
- Ola Stenlåås, Olof Erlandsson, Rolf Egnell, Bengt Johansson, Evert Alm, Fabian Mauss, "The Effect of Unconventional Piston Movement on SI Engine Combustion and Emissions", SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1170, Detroit, USA, 2005
- Martin Weinrotter, Kurt Iskra, Ernst Wintner, Theo Neger, Jimmy Olofsson, Marcus Alden, Hans Seyfried,Max Lackner, Franz Winter, Anders Hultqvist, Andreas Vressner, Bengt Johansson, " Optical Diagnostics of Laser-Induced and Spark Plug Assisted HCCI Combustion", SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0129
- Jimmy Olofsson, Hans Seyfried, Mattias Richter, Marcus Alden, Andreas Vressner, Anders Hultqvist,Bengt Johansson, Karine Lombaer, "High-speed LIF Imaging for Cycle-Resolved Formaldehyde Visualization in HCCI Combustion", 2005-01-0641
Detroit, USA, 2005
- Leif Hildingsson, Håkan Persson, Bengt Johansson, Robert Collin, Jenny Nygren, Mattias Richter, Marcus Alden, Ryo Hasegawa, Hiromichi Yanagihara
"Optical Diagnostics of HCCI and UNIBUS Using 2-D PLIF of OH and Formaldehyde", SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0175, Detroit, USA, 2005
- Håkan Persson, R. Pfeiffer, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson, H. Ström
"Cylinder-to-Cylinder and Cycle-to-Cycle Variations at HCCI Operation with Trapped Residuals", SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0130, Detroit, USA, 2005
- Andreas Vressner, Anders Hultqvist, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson and Ryo Hasegawa, “Fuel Effects on Ion Current in an HCCI Engine”, SAE 2005-01-2093, Rio De Janiero, Brazil, May 2005
- Johan Bengtsson, Petter Strandh, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson, "Closed-Loop Combustion Control of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Dynamics", International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing, 18 , pp. 167-179, 2004
- Håkan Persson, Mats Agrell, Jan-Ola Olsson, Bengt Johansson
"The Effect of Intake Temperature on HCCI Operation using Negative Valve Overlap"
SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-0944, Detroit, USA, 2004
- Jan-Ola Olsson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson, "Boosting for High Load HCCI", SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-0940, Detroit, USA, 2004
- Johan Bengtsson, Petter Strandh, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson
"Cycle-to-Cycle Control of a Dual-Fuel HCCI Engine"
SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-0941, Detroit, USA, 2004
- Jari Hyvönen, Göran Haraldsson, Bengt Johansson, "Balancing Cylinder-To-Cylinder Variations in a Multi-Cylinder VCR-HCCI Engine", SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1897, Toulouse, France, 2004
- Ola Stenlåås, Rolf Egnell, Bengt Johansson, Fabian Mauss
"Hydrogen as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Fuel", SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1976, Toulouse, France, 2004
- Leif Hildingsson, Håkan Persson, Bengt Johansson, Robert Collin, Jenny Nygren,
Mattias Richter, Marcus Alden, Ryo Hasegawa, Hiromichi Yanagihara, "Optical Diagnostics of Hcci and Low-Temperature Diesel Using Simultaneous 2-D Plif of Oh and Formaldehyde", SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-2949, Tampa, USA, 2004
- Henrik Nordgren, Anders Hultqvist, Bengt Johansson, "Start of Injection Strategies for Hcci Combustion", SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-2990, Tampa, USA, 2004
- Robert Collin, Jenny Nygren, Mattias Richter, Marcus Aldén, Leif Hildingsson,
Bengt Johansson, "The Effect of Fuel Volatility on HCCI Using Simultaneous Formaldehyde and OH PLIF", SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-2948, Tampa, USA, 2004
- Robert Collin, Jenny Nygren, Mattias Richter, Marcus Aldén, Leif Hildingsson, Bengt Johansson, “Studies of the Combustion Process with Simultaneous Formaldehyde and OH PLIF in a Direct-Injected HCCI Engine”, Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines, Yokohama, Japan, pp. 311-317, 2004
- Ryo Hasegawa, Ichiro Sakata, Hiromichi Yanagihara, Leif Hildingsson, Bengt Johansson, Robert Collin, Jenny Nygren, Mattias Richter, “Analysis on Homogeneity Effects in HCCI Combustion using simultaneous OH- and Formaldehyde LIF Measurements”, 13th Aachen Colloquium, 2004
- Andreas Vressner, Petter Strandh, Anders Hultqvist, Per Tunestål & Bengt Johansson
"Multiple Point Ion Current Diagnostics in an HCCI Engine",
SAE paper 2004-01-0934, Detroit, USA, 2004
- G. Haraldsson, J. Hyvönen, P. Tunestål, B. Johansson,
”HCCI Closed-Loop Combustion Control Using Fast Thermal Management”,
SAE 2004-01-0943, Detroit, USA, 2004
- P. Tunestål, P. Einewall, O. Stenlåås, and B. Johansson. (2004). “Possible Short-Term Introduction of Hydrogen as Vehicle Fuel / Fuel Additive”., Which Fuels for Low CO2 Engines? IFP International Conference., Rueil-Malmaison France: IFP Information.
- Stenlåås, M. Christensen, R. Egnell, P. Tunestål, B. Johansson and F. Mauss. (2004).
“Reformed Methanol Gas as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Fuel”., SAE paper 2004-01-2991., Tampa, USA, 2004
- R. Pfeiffer, G. Haraldsson, J. O. Olsson, P. Tunestål, R. Johansson, B. Johansson
"System Identification and LQG Control of Variable Compression HCCI Engine Dynamics", Conference on Control Applications, Taipei, Taiwan
- 56. J. O. Olsson, R. Pfeiffer, P. Tunestål, B. Johansson, R. Johansson
"Closed-Loop System Identification of an HCCI Engine, “Advances in Automotive Control”, International Federation of Automatic Control, Salerno, Italy
- Robert Collin, Jenny Nygren, Mattias Richter, Marcus Aldén, Leif Hildingsson, Bengt Johansson, “Simultaneous OH- and Formaldehyde-LIF Measurements in An HCCI Engine”, SAE Transactions Journal of Fuels and Lubricants 2003, SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3218
- Henrik Nordgren, Leif Hildingsson, Bengt Johansson, Lars Dahlén, Dennis Konstanzer, “Comparison Between In-Cylinder PIV Measurements, CFD Simulations and Stead-Flow Impulse Torque Swirl Meter Measurements”
SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3147
- Franke, F., Einewall, P., Johansson, B., Wickström, N., Reinmann, R and Larsson, A
The effect of in-cylinder gas flow on the interpretation of the ionization sensor signal
SAE 2003-01-1120, 2003
- Olsson, J-O., Tunestål, P., Ulfvik, J. and Johansson, B.
The Effect of Cooled EGR on Emissions and Performance of a Turbocharged HCCI Engine, SAE 2003-01-0743, 2003
- Einewall, P., Tunestål, P. and Johansson, B., The Potential of Using the Ion-Current Signal for Optimizing Engine Stability - Comparisations of Lean and EGR (Stoichiometric) Operation, SAE 2003-01-0717, 2003
- Stenlåås, O., Einewall, P., Egnell, R. and Johansson, B.
Measurement of Knock and Ion Current in a Spark Ignition Engine with and without NO Addition to the Intake Air. , SAE 2003-01-0639, 2003.
- Haraldsson, G., Hyvönen, J., Tunestål, P. and Johansson, B
HCCI Combustion Phasing with Closed-Loop Combustion Control Using Variable Compression Ratio in a Multi Cylinder Engine, JSAE 200301126,*
- Hyvönen, J., Haraldsson, G. and Johansson, B., Operating range in a Multi Cylinder engine using Variable Compression Ratio, JSAE 20030178
- Petter Strandh, Magnus Christensen, Johan Bengtsson, Rolf Johansson, Andreas Vressner, Per Tunestål & Bengt Johansson, ”Ion Current Sensing for HCCI Combustion Feedback”, SAE 2003-01-3216
- Andreas Vressner, Andreas Lundin, Magnus Christensen, Per Tunestål & Bengt Johansson, “Pressure Oscillations During Rapid HCCI Combustion”, SAE 2003-01-3217
- Haraldsson, G., Hyvönen, J., Tunestål, P. and Johansson, B.
HCCI Combustion Phasing in a Multi Cylinder Engine Using Variable Compression Ratio, SAE 2002 Transactions, Journal of Engines
SAE 2002-01-2858, 2002
- Christensen, M., Hultqvist, A. and Johansson, B, “The Effect of Combustion Chamber Geometry on HCCI Operation”, SAE 2002 Transactions, Journal of Engines
SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0425, 2002*,**
- Hultqvist, A., Christensen, M., Johansson, B., Richter, M., Nygren, J., Hult, J. and Aldén, M., “Characterization of the HCCI Combustion Process in a Heavy Duty Engine by High-Speed Fuel Tracer LIF and Chemiluminescence Imaging
SAE 2002 Transactions, Journal of Engines”, SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0424, 2002,*,**
- Olsson, J-O, Tunestal, P., Johansson, B., Fiveland, S., Agama, J. R. and D. N. Assanis.
Compression Ratio Influence on Maximum Load of a Natural Gas HCCI Engine
SAE 2002 Transactions, Journal of Engines
SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0111, 2002
- Erlandsson, O., Einewall, P., Johansson, B., Amnéus, P. and Mauss, F.
Simulation of HCCI – Addressing Compression Ratio and Turbo Charging
- Tunestål, P., Christensen, M., Einewall, P., Andersson, T., Johansson, B. and Jönsson, O: Hydrogen Addition For Improved Lean Burn Capability of Slow and Fast Burning Natural Gas Combustion Chambers
- Fiveland, S., Christensen, M., Mauss, F., Johansson, B., Assanis, D. N. and Hiltner, J. D.: Experimental and Simulated Results Detailing the Sensitivity of Natural Gas HCCI Engines to Fuel Composition,
SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-3609, 2001.
- Söderberg, F. and Johansson, B.
Load Control Using Late Intake Valve Closing in a Cross Flow Cylinder Head.
SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-3554, 2001
- Ekenberg, M., Reinmann, R., Olofsson, E., Gillet, B and Johansson, B.
The Influence of a Late In-Cylinder Air Injection on In-Cylinder Flow Measured with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).
SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-3492, 2001
- Olsson, J-O, Tunestål, P., Haraldsson, G. and Johansson, B.
A Turbo Charged Dual Fuel HCCI Engine.
SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1896, 2001
- Christensen, M., Hultqvist, A. and Johansson, B.
The Effect of Topland Geometry on Emissions of Unburned Hydrocarbons from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine
SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1893, 2001.*
- 78. Hultqvist, A., Engdar, U., Johansson, B. and Klingmann, J.
“Reacting Boundary Layers in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine”, SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1032, 2001,**
- Olsson, J-O, Tunestål, P. and Johansson, B.
Closed-Loop Control of an HCCI Engine.
SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1031, 2001,*
- Kong, S-C, Marriott, C., Reitz, R. R. and Christensen, M.
Modeling and Experiments of HCCI Engine Combustion Using Detailed Chemical Kinetics with Multidimensional CFD
SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1026, 2001.**
- Franke, A., Einewall, P., Johansson, B. and Reinmann, R.
Employing an Ionization Sensor for Combustion Diagnostics in a Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine.
SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0992, 2001
- Ekenberg M., Johansson B.
A High Dilution Stoichiometric Combustion Concept Using a Wide Variable Spark Gap and In-Cylinder Air Injection in Order to Meet Future CO2 Requirements and World Wide Emission Regulations,
SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0246, 2001
- Tunestål, P., Olsson, J-O and Johansson, B.
HCCI Operation of a Multi-Cylinder Engine.
First Biennial Meeting of the Scandinavian-Nordic Section of the Combustion Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden, April 2001
- Richter, M., Franke, A., Engström, J., Aldén, M., Hultqvist, A. and Johansson, B.
The Influence of Charge Inhomogeneity on the HCCI Combustion Process
SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2868, 2000*,**
- Olsson, J-O, Erlandsson, O. and Johansson, B.
Experiments and Simulation of a Six-Cylinder Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine.
SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2867, 2000*
- Einewall, P. and Johansson, B.
Cylinder to Cylinder and Cycle to Cycle Variations in a Six-Cylinder Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine.
SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1941, 2000
- Ekenberg, M. and Johansson, B.
Fuel Distribution in an Air Assist Direct Injected Sparked Ignition Engine with Central Injection and Spark Plug Measured with Laser Induced Fluorescence.
SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1898, 2000
- Erlandsson, O., Johansson, B. and Silversand, F.
Hydrocarbon (HC) reduction of exhaust gases from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine using different catalytic mesh-coatings.
SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1847, 2000
- Christensen, M. and Johansson, B.
Supercharged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) with Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Pilot Fuel.
SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1835, 2000
- Hultqvist, A., Christensen, M. and Johansson, B.
The Application of Ceramic and Catalytic Coatings to Reduce the Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine.
SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1833, 2000
- Aceves, S. M., Flowers, D. L., Westbrook, C. K., Smith, J. R., Dibble, R., Christensen, M. and Johansson, B. “A Multi-Zone Model for Prediction of HCCI Combustion and Emissions”, SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0327, 2000
- Hultqvist, A., Christensen, M., Richter, M., Engström, J., Franke, A. and Johansson, B.
“Near Wall Combustion in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine”, AVL 4th Int. Symp. on Internal Combustion Diagnostics, 18-19 May, 2000, Baden-Baden,**
- Kraft, M., Maigaard, P., Mauss, F., Christensen, M. and Johansson, B.
Investigations of Combustion Emissions in a HCCI Engine – Measurements and a New Computational Model.
28th International Symposium for Combustion, Edinburgh, 2000,**
- Hultqvist, A., Christensen, M., Johansson, B., Franke, A., Richter, M. and Aldén, M.
A Study of the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Process by Chemiluminescence Imaging, SAE Transactions, Journal of Engines, vol. 108,
SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3680, 1999.
- Christensen, M., Hultqvist, A. and Johansson, B.: “Demonstrating the Multi Fuel Capability of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine with Variable Compression Ratio”, SAE Transactions, Journal of Engines, vol. 108,
SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3679, 1999*
- Johansson, B. and Klingmann, J: “Interaction between turbulence and flame in an S.I. engine and in a stationary burner”, SAE Transactions, Journal of Engines, vol. 108,
SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0569, 1999.
- Franke, A., Richter, M., Aldén, M., Hultqvist, A. and Johansson, B.:”Optical Diagnostics Applied to a Naturally Aspirated Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine”, SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3649, 1999.
- Christensen, M. and Johansson, B. :”Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition with Water Injection”, SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0182, 1999.
- Christensen, M. and Johansson, B. : “Influence of Mixture Quality on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition”, SAE Transactions, Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, vol. 107, SAE Technical Paper 982454, 1998.
- Klingmann, J. and Johansson, B. “Measurements of turbulent flame speed and integral length scales in a lean stationary premixed flame.”, SAE Transactions, Journal of Engines, vol. 107, SAE Technical Paper 981050, 1998.
- Christensen, M., Amneus, P., Mauss, F. and Johansson, B. :”Supercharged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition”, SAE Transactions, Journal of Engines, vol. 107, SAE Technical Paper 980787, 1998.,
- Söderberg, F. and Johansson, B. “Wavelet Analysis of In-Cylinder LDV Measurements and Correlation against Heat-Release”, SAE Transactions, Journal of Engines, vol. 107, SAE Technical Paper 980483, 1998.
- Erlandsson, O., Lundholm, G., Söderberg, F., Johansson, B. and Wong V. W.
”Demonstrating the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Variable Compression Ratio, Alvar-Cycle Engine”, SAE Technical Paper 982682, 1998.
- Johansson, B. and Söderberg, F.: “Fluid Flow, Combustion and Efficiency with Early or Late Inlet Valve Closing”, SAE Transactions, Journal of Engines, vol. 106,
SAE Technical Paper 972937, 1997.
- Johansson, B., Einewall, P. and Christensen, M.: “Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) using isooctane, ethanol and natural gas—A comparison with spark-ignition operation”, SAE Transactions, Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, vol. 106,
SAE Technical Paper 972874, 1997.
- Einewall, P and Johansson, B.: “Combustion chambers for supercharged natural gas engines”, SAE Transactions, Journal of Engines, vol. 106, SAE Technical Paper 970221, 1997.
- Lundgren, F., Johansson, B. and Holst, J.: ”Flame Reconstruction in Spark Ignition Engines”, SAE Technical Paper 972825, 1997.
- 108. Ekenberg, M och Johansson, B: “Laser Sheet Droplet Concentration Measurements in a High Speed Two-stroke Engine”: SAE Technical Paper 972123
- Ekenberg, M. and Johansson, B. :”In-Cylinder Flow in High Speed Two-Stroke Engines with Different Transfer Channels. SAE Technical Paper 970357, 1997.
- Einewall, P., Olsson, M. and Johansson, B.: “Combustion Chambers for Supercharged Natural Gas Engines.”, SAE Technical Paper 970221, 1997.
- B. Johansson: ”Cycle to Cycle Variations in S.I. Engines- The effects of Fluid flow and Gas Composition in the vicinity of the spark plug on Early Combustion”, SAE962084
- Ö. Andersson, G. Juhlin, M. Ekenberg, B. Johansson, M. Aldén: ”Crank angle Resolved HC-detection Using LIF in the Exhausts of Small Two-Stroke Engines Running at High Engine Speeds”, SAE961927
- M. Wiktorsson, B. Lindoff, B. Johansson, F. Söderberg: ”Wavelet Analysis of In-Cylinder LDV Velocity Measurements”, SAE961921
- B. Johansson, F. Söderberg: The Effect of Valve Strategy on In-Cylinder Flow and Combustion", SAE960582
- M. Ekenberg, B. Johansson: "The Effect of Transfer Port Geometry on Scavenge Flow Velocities at High Engine Speed", SAE960366
- B. Johansson, H. Neij, M. Aldén, G. Juhlin: "Residual Gas Visualization with Laser Induced Fluorescence SAE952463.
- M. Ekenberg, B. Johansson: "Scavenging Flow Velocity in Small Two-Strokes at High Engine Speed", SAE951789
- D. Ting, D. Checkel, B. Johansson: "The Importance of High-Frequency, Small-Eddy Turbulence in Spark-Ignited, Premixed Engine Combustion", SAE paper 952409
- K. Olsson, B. Johansson: " Combustion Chambers for Natural Gas SI Engines Part 2: Combustion And Emissions", SAE950517
- B. Johansson, K. Olsson: "Combustion Chambers for Natural Gas SI Engines Part 1: Fluid Flow and Combustion", SAE950469
- B. Johansson, H. Neij, M. Aldén, G. Juhlin: "Investigations of the Influence of Mixture Preparation on Cyclic Variations in a SI-Engine, Using Laser Induced Fluorescence", SAE950108
- P.E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm: "Dual Broadband Rotational CARS Measurements in a IC engine", 24'th International Symposium on Combustion, 1994.
- H. Neij, B. Johansson, M. Aldén: Developments and Demonstration of 2D-LIF for Studies of Mixture Preparation in SI engines", Combustion and Flame 99:449-457, 1994.
- K. Marforio, B. Lassesson, B. Johansson: "Influence of Flow Parameters and Spark Characteristics on the Early Flame Development in a SI-Engine", The 3rd Int. Symposium on diagn. and model. of combustion in ICE, COMODIA94, Yokohama, 1994
- B. Johansson: "The Influence of Different Frequencies in the Turbulence on Early Flame Development in a Spark Ignition Engine", SAE940990
- H. Neij, B. Johansson, M. Aldén: "Cycle Resolved Two-Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence Measurements of Fuel/Air Ratio Correlated to Early Combustion in a Spark Ignitited Engine" Paper presented at the Advanced Study Institute on Unsteady Combustion, Praia da Granja, Portugal, September 16-17, 1993.
- B. Johansson: "Correlation Between Cycle-Resolved 2-D Velocity Measurements and Early Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine" SIPE Vol. 2052 Laser Anemometry. Advances. and Applications. (1993) pp 695-702).
- B. Johansson: "Influence of the Velocity Near the Spark Plug on Early Flame Development" SAE930481
 Most are papers presented at SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers). Those making SAE transaction are top 30% and printed in a special journal making them refereed articles. It has been shown that 80% of all references in literature on IC engines are from SAE papers making it the outstanding source in the field even though it is not included in Science Citation Index.
“Förbränningsmotor av kolv-cylindertyp samt förfarande för initiering av tändningen i en sådan cylinder”,
Priority number SE19980002743 19980813
A short description of the projects I have been involved in is given below in chronological order:
1. Gas exchange in small two-stoke engines
In the time period 1995-1998 the gas exchange in the cylinder of small two-stoke engines was experimentally investigated by the use of laser doppler velocimetry (LDV). The project was conducted within the Center of Competence Combustion Processes at Lund Institute of Technology. Husqvarna and Atlas-Copco BEREMA were industry partners. I worked as assistant supervisor to a Ph.D. Student, Martin Ekenberg, which conducted most experiments. An effort with advanced laser diagnostics was conduced within this project as a cooperation between the Divisions of Combustion Physics and Combustion Engines. Here a Ph.D. student from Physics, Öivind Andersson, used laser-induced fluorescence to study the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons. Unique results can from this project as this was the first time optical experiments were conducted at the correct engine operating conditions; 9000 rpm and full load. Five SAE papers resulted form the work and the industry got a better understanding of the actual processes occurring within the cylinder during gas exchange.
Martin Ekenberg got a Licentiate in Engineering in November 1998 under my supervision.
2. Fluid flow and combustion with Variable Valve Timing (VVT)
From 1995 a project focused on the in-cylinder effect of variable valve timing started. Also this project is running within the Center of Competence Combustion Processes with financial support from Volvo Cars. Fredrik Söderberg has under my supervision done LDV measurements within the cylinder of a Volvo single cylinder engine operating with different strategies for inlet valve lift and duration. The flow pattern was then compared to the combustion event and emissions. To further extend the evaluation procedures of the LDV data, contact with Mathematical Statistics was taken during 1996. This contact between Jan Holst and me resulted in two joint papers on the usage of Wavelets for velocity measurements with random arrival time. The first paper was mainly written by Magnus Wiktorsson and Bengt Lindoff from Mat.Stat. but the processing was conducted by Fredrik Söderberg in the second paper. Two other papers focused on the fluid flow have also been presented. Fredrik Söderberg also worked with the combination of variable valve timing and variable compression ratio. Volvo has manufactured a special design of cylinder head giving an inexpensive way to get engine load control without throttle using VVT. The design, originally from me, is filed for a patent.
Fredrik Söderberg got a Licentiate in Engineering in November 1998 with by supervision and a Ph.D. in May 2002.
3. Natural gas engine
A project with natural gas fueled truck engines started for the second term within the Center of Competence Combustion Processes, July 1997. This project focuses on the differences between natural gas and purified biogas containing methane only. The project is a continuation of a project running between Volvo Trucks and LTH since 1995. At that time Patrik Einewall did his master thesis studying the effects of supercharging on spark ignition engine performance. He used laser measurements as well as cylinder pressure registration and emission monitoring. A paper resulted from this work. During the time from 1997 to 1999 the engine system for a six-cylinder engine test cell with full instrumentation was built up by Patrik Einewall, now working as a Ph.D. student under my supervision. A first paper from multi-cylinder engine work was published in Paris June 2000 at the SAE meeting.
4. Engine related combustion technology
Within the NUTEK framework “Engine related combustion technology” a project was running from 1995 to 1998. I worked as project leader for this project and Jens Klingmann was a Ph.D. student with a background at the division of Thermal Power Engineering headed by Prof. Tord Torisson. Jens and I designed a stationary burner in which it was possible to study turbulent flames without the problems associated with experiments in optical engines. Flame speed, Mean velocity, turbulence intensity and length scales were all measured using advanced two-point laser doppler velocimetry (LDV). The results from the burner were also compared to two-point measurements in an optical engine.
Three papers resulted from this work and Jens Klingmann got his Ph.D. in December 1998, but as he started his Ph.D. studies at the Division of Thermal Power Engineering and also got a Licentiate in Engineering at 1992, the formal supervisor was Prof. Tord Torisson.
5. Air-assisted gasoline direct injection
A project focusing on injection of gasoline directly into the cylinder is running within the framwork of “Programrådet för fordonsforskning”. Here a restart of the project occurred at September 1997 as the first Ph.D: student from SAAB was unable to fulfill his obligations. Martin Ekenberg, former two-stoke student, was hired by SAAB instead and has since then been working on the SAAB DI project under my supervision. The main goal of this project is to study the fuel flow in the cylinder in order to get a suitable mixture at the time of ignition. Much effort has been put into getting an engine with good optical access to permit laser based diagnostics. The first paper from this project is accepted for publication at SAE in Paris June 2000. Martin Ekenberg got his Ph.D. in February 2002.
6. ATAC engine
One new interesting engine is the homogeneous charge compression ignition engine (HCCI) also denoted ATAC-engine. This engine type has the potential to combine the low fuel consumption of diesel engine with the extremely low emissions of the gasoline engine using a three-way catalyst.
A first ATAC project was started in July 1997 for the second term within the Center of Competence Combustion Processes. Preceding this project start was an extensive lobbying activity, which resulted in a large consortium of industry participants. Volvo Trucks, Volvo Cars, Scania, Wärtsilä Diesel and the Swedish Gas Center (SGC) all funded a part of the project. Later during the project Mercedes-Benz and Caterpillar wanted to join 1998 but this was rejected by the industry already in the project. Saab and Caterpillar did join the project, as restarted in phase three of the Center of Competence Combustion Processes 2000-2003. For the fourth phase, 2003-2005, Toyota, Hino and Nissan also joined the project.
The project is focusing on engine experiments and chemical kinetics to model the combustion process. I am project leader and was also supervisor to Magnus Christensen, which was conducting the engine experiments. For the chemical kinetics, Per Amnéus was working under supervision of Fabian Mauss at the division of Combustion Physics. Since 2000 also laser based diagnostics and engine control have been active research topics within the centre.
Many papers and one technical report are the result so far within the project. The program code developed within the project is currently used by industry.
Apart from the scientific reports this project as also generated much interest in the media. Articles with a first page introduction has been published in “LUM Lunds Universitet Meddelar”, Sydsvenska Dagbladet, Arbetet Nyheterna, Kvällsposten and Skånska Dagbladet. A more technical oriented article has also been published in “ Ny Teknik”. The project was also the topic in the news program “Rapport” with a comment from Leif Johansson, CEO Volvo and in February 2000 also on “Aktuellt”.
7. ATAC in a system
As a spin-of from the previous project a second ATAC project started in December 1997. The project called “ATAC in a System” is within the framework “Thermal Processes for Thermal Power Generation” from the Swedish National Energy Administration (STEM). The aim for this project is to study not only the combustion as such in an ATAC engine but instead focus on the entire system. This means that attention will be given to supercharging and turbo charging, exhaust gas aftertreatment and system design. A simulation model for an engine with turbocharger has been developed and test with an oxidizing catalyst designed by the company Katator was performed. Olof Erlandsson was working as a student under my supervision. The first paper was published in Paris at the SAE meeting in June 2000 on the topic of catalytic converters for the ATAC engine. Olof got his Ph.D. in December 2002 and then the project was terminated.
Another spin-of from the first ATAC project was within the “Programrådet för fordonsforskning, PFF”. Here, a Ph.D. student from Scania, Anders Hultqvist, was working with more detailed studies of the ATAC combustion process using laser based diagnostics in cooperation with the Division of Combustion Physics. The project started in July 1998. Anders presented a first paper at the SAE Toronto fuel and lubricants meeting October 1999 and has written several more since then. Anders got his Ph.D. in May 2002 and the project was terminated then.
9. Full-size ATAC
All former projects have been working with single cylinder engines when studying the combustion process. However, measuring break specific fuel consumption accurately requires a full-size engine. For that purpose, Jan-Ola Olsson, a Ph.D. student, was working on converting a 12-liter Scania truck engine. Sydkraft sponsored this work on a half-year contract. The first results from this project was presented in Baltimore October 2000, the first ever results on multi-cylinder ATAC-operation. Jan-Ola started after the end of this project to work on engine control within the larger ATAC project in the centre of competence. He will receive his Ph.D. in February 2003.
10. HCCI with variable compression ratio
Göran Haraldsson started as Ph.D. student February 1 2000 on a new project focusing on the control of the HCCI/ATAC engine using variable compression ratio with the engine presented by SAAB at the Geneva motor show in March 2000. He is under my supervision investigating the possible engine load and speed ranges with a supercharged HCCI engine. A second student, Jari Hyvönen started as industrial Ph.D. student employed by Saab in 2001. Saab is sponsoring the project, which now runs within the Green Car project framework.
11. The green car project
In 2000 a national horizontal project on HCCI was formed. Three students from my division are involved here. Leif Hildingsson is doing laser based experiments in an optical HCCI based on a Volvo Car diesel engine. Henrik Nordgren is doing similar type of experiments in a Scania optical engine. Thus similar experiments are conducted in a small (0.5 liter) engine and a larger (2 liter) and the effect of scale can be determined. Petter Strand is working on a six-cylinder engine with focus on engine control. Henrik and Petter are industrial Ph.D. students from Scania and Volvo Powertrain (Trucks).